What are the symptoms of ADHD?
ADHD becomes apparent in some children as early as the preschool and early school years; however, many individuals are not diagnosed until their adulthood. The symptoms of ADHD can be variable and situational or constant. For example, some individuals can concentrate only if they are interested or excited, while others have difficulty concentrating under any circumstances. Some avidly seek stimulation, while others avoid it. Some become oppositional, ill-behaved and, later, antisocial; others may become ardent people-pleasers. Additionally, not all forms of Attention Deficient Disorder include hyperactivity. Symptoms of ADHD will appear over the course of at least 6 months, and may include some or all of the following:
- Impulsiveness: acting quickly without thinking first.
- Hyperactivity: inability to sit still (ex: walking, running, or climbing around when others are seated, talking when others are talking, fidgeting and restlessness).
- Inattention: daydreaming, losing focus, and being easily distracted by the environment.
- Disorganization: poor time management, messy room, work area, and appearance.
- Forgetfulness: often misplacing objects, forgetting to complete important tasks.
- Procrastination: inability to begin and complete necessary tasks, poor prioritization.
- Avoidant behavior: constantly changing the subject or refusing to participate in conversation when uncomfortable or uninterested in the subject.
- Chronic boredom
- Learning Disabilities
- Aggression and violent outbursts
- Low self-esteem
- Mood swings
- Substance abuse or addictions
- Relationship problems
What are the causes of ADHD?
The exact causes of ADHD are not conclusively known. Scientific evidence suggests that in many cases the disorder is genetically transmitted and occurs when there is an imbalance in the chemicals that regulate the efficiency with which the brain controls behavior. A study conducted at the National Institute of Mental Health correlated ADHD with a series of metabolic abnormalities in the brain, providing further evidence that it is a neurobiological disorder. Currently, there is little scientific evidence to suggest that environmental factors, dietary factors, inner-ear problems, or visual-motor difficulties are the underlying causes of ADHD.
Why is it important to identify ADHD in children?
ADHD can have devastating effects on a child’s social, emotional, and educational development. Additionally, if left untreated, ADHD can have long-term adverse effects, continuing well into adolescence and adulthood. The longer treatment is delayed, the harder it becomes to rid the individual of this disorder. An early diagnosis of ADHD will help parents, teachers, and care-takers ensure that the child develops properly. Furthermore, it is important for parents of children with ADHD to learn how to communicate effectively with their children to get the most of any treatment plan.
Why is it important to identify ADHD in adults?
There is a significant difference between a personality type and a neurobiological disorder. Many individuals suffering with ADHD are labeled slow learners, unmotivated, immature, lazy, and self-centered. A proper diagnosis of ADHD can help put your difficulties into perspective. Knowing that you have ADHD is important for determining the appropriate management of your educational, personal, and social development, and can improve your overall chances of leading a successful life. Effective intervention will improve self-esteem, work performance and skills, and educational achievement.
What can neurofeedback do for individuals with ADHD?
If you are hesitant to medicate yourself or your child, or if the medication you are currently taking does not seem to be achieving the results you hoped for, you should know that neurofeedback has been proven to be a successful treatment for this disorder. Numerous studies have found that individuals with ADHD had significantly improved attention, social adaptability, and self esteem as a result of neurotherapy training (Pop-Jordanova, 2005). In another study, medication was found to be reduced in almost 87% of ADHD cases when neurofeedback techniques were used (Thompson & Thompson, 1998).
What can the Brain Resource Center do for ADHD?
State of the art assessment and effective treatments for ADHD are available at the Brain Resource Center. We offer a comprehensive approach for children and adults that includes a combination of neurofeedback, biofeedback, cognitive coaching, and family therapy (when needed). We also offer a thorough diagnostic package, consisting of a complete qEEG brain mapping, a cognitive skills assessment, and a neuropsychological evaluation, so that you can know once and for all whether you or your child have ADHD. Call us today at (212) 877-2130 for a consultation. You deserve to know your options.
BRC Case Studies
Peer-Reviewed Published Papers
Review of the Literature Regarding the Efficacy of Neurofeedback in the Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder by Lingenfelter JE
Electroencephalogram (EEG) biofeedback, also known as neurofeedback, is a promising alternative treatment for patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) by Friel PN
Electroencephalographic Biofeedback in the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder by Monastra VJ, Lynn S, Linden M, Lubar JF, Gruzelier J, LaVaque TJ
Electroencephalographic biofeedback (neurotherapy) as a treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: rationale and empirical foundation by Monastra VJ
Treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with neurotherapy by Nash JK
EEG biofeedback: A new treatment option for ADD/ADHD by Alhambra, M. A., Fowler, T. P., & Alhambra, A. A. (1995)
EEG-based personalized medicine in ADHD: Individual alpha peak frequency as an endophenotype associated with nonresponse by Arns, M. (2012)
Efficacy of neurofeedback treatment in ADHD: The effects on inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity: A meta-analysis by Arns, M, de Ridder, S, Strehl, U, Breteler, M, & Coenen, A. (2009).
Neurotherapy and alert hypnosis in the treatment of attention deficit disorder by Barabasz, A., & Barabasz, M. (1996).
Treating AD/HD with hypnosis and neurotherapy by Barabasz, A., & Barabasz, M. (2000).
Functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the efects of neurofeedback training on the neural bases of selective attention and response inhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder by Beauregard, M., & Levesque, J. (2006).
Followup study of Learning Disabled children treated with Neurofeedback or placebo by Becerra J, Fernndez T, Harmony T, Caballero MI, Garcia F, FernandezBouzas A, Santiago-Rodriguez E, Prado-Alcalá RA. (2006)
EEG biofeedback in the schools: The use of EEG biofeedback to treat ADHD in a school setting by Boyd, W. D., & Campbell, S. E. (1998).
Improvements in spelling after QEEG-based neurofeedback in dyslexia: A randomized controlled treatment study by Breteler, M. H. M., Arns, M., Peters, S., Giepmans, I., & Verhoeven, L. (2010).
Neurofeedback in residential children and adolescents with mild mental retardation and ADHD behavior by Breteler, R., Pesch, W., Nadorp, M. (2012).
EEG biofeedback training and attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder in an elementary school setting by Carmody, D. P., Radvanski, D. C., Wadhwani, S., Sabo, J. J., & Vergara, L. (2001).
Changes in verbal performance IQ discrepancy scores after left hemisphere frequency control training: A pilot report by Carter, J. L., & Russell, H. L. (1991).
The effects of bilateral EEG biofeedback on verbal, visuospatial and creative skills in LD male adolescents by Cunningham, M., & Murphy, P. (1981).
Controlled evaluation of a neurofeedback training of slow cortical potentials in children with ADHD by Drechsler R, Straub M, Doehnert M, Heinrich H, Steinhausen H, Brandeis D. (2007).
EEG activity in females with attentiondeficit/ hyperactivity disorder by Dupuy, E. F., & Clarke, A.(2012).
Learned self-regulation of EEG frequency Components affects attention and event-related brain potentials in humans by Egner, T., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2001).
EEG biofeedback of low beta band components: Frequency-specific efects on variables of attention and event-related brain potentials by Egner, T., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2004).
Multichannel EEG phase synchrony training and verbally guided attention training for disorders of attention by Fehmi, L. G. (2007).
EEG biofeedback, multichannel synchrony training, and attention by Fehmi, L. G. (1978).
Biofeedback and attention training by Fehmi, L. G., & Selzer, F. A. (1980).
EEG and behavioral changes following neurofeedback treatment in learning disabled children by Fernandez, T., Herrera, W., Harmony, T., Diaz-Comas, L., Santiago, E., Sanchez, L., Bosch, J., Fernandez-Bouzas, A., Otero, G., RicardoGarcell, J., Barraza, C., Aubert, E., Galan, L., & Valdes, P. (2003).
Case study: Improvements in IQ score and maintenance of gains following EEG biofeedback with mildly developmentally delayed twins by Fleischman, M. J., & Othmer, S. (2005).
Neurofeedback training as an educational intervention in a school setting: How the regulation of arousal states can lead to improved attention and behaviour in children with special needs by Foks, M. (2005)
Neurofeedback: An alternative and efcacious treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by Fox, D. J., Tharp, D. F., & Fox, L. C. (2005).
The impact of neurotherapy on college students' cognitive abilities and emotions by Fritson, K. K., Wadkins, T. A., Gerdes, P., & Hof, D. (2007).
Neurofeedback treatment for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children: A comparison with methylphenidate by Fuchs, T., Birbaumer, N., Lutzenberger, W., Gruzelier, J. H., & Kaiser, J. (2003).
Long term efects after feedback of slow cortical potentials and of theta-beta amplitudes in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) by Gani C., Birbaumer N. & Strehl U.(2008).
Induced EEG gamma oscillation alignment improves diferentiation between autism and ADHD group responses in a facial categorization task by Gross, E., El-Baz-Ayman A, S., Sokhadze, G, E. (2012).
Neurotherapy and drug therapy in combination for adult ADHD, personality disorder, and seizure by Hansen, L. M., Trudeau, D., & Grace, L. (1996).
Place of electroencephalographic biofeedback for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder by Hirshberg, L. M. (2007).
Effects of neurofeedback training on attention in children with intellectual disability by Hong, C., Lee, I. (2012).
Facilitation of performance on an arithmetic task as a result of the application of a biofeedback procedure to suppress alpha wave activity by Jackson, G. M., & Eberly, D. A. (1982).
Neurofeedback treatment of two children with learning, attention, mood, social, and developmental deficits by Jacobs, E. H. (2005).
Effect of Neurofeedback on variables of attention in a large multi-center trial by Kaiser, D. A., & Othmer, S. (2000).
Neurofeedback protocols for subtypes of attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder by Kirk, L. (2007)
Computerassisted cognitive training for ADHD: A case study by Kotwal, D. B., Burns, W. J., & Montgomery, D. D. (1996).
Changes in EEG spectograms, event-related potentials and event-related desynchronization induced by relative beta training in ADHD children by Kropotov, J. D., Grin-Yatsenko, V. A., Ponomarev, V. A., Chutko, L. S., Yakovenko, E. A., & Nikishena, I. S. (2007).
ERPs correlates of EEG relative beta training in ADHD children by Kropotov, J. D., Grin-Yatsenko, V. A., Ponomarev, V. A., Chutko, L. S., Yakovenko, E. A., Nildshena, I. S. (2005).
EEG asymmetry analysis of the left and right brain activities during simple versus complex arithmetic learning by Kwon, H., Cho, J., Lee, E. (2009).
Neurofeedback for children with ADHD: A comparison of SCP and theta/beta protocols by Leins, U., Goth, G., Hinterberger, T., Klinger, C., Rumpf, N., & Strehl, U. (2007).
Effect of neurofeedback training on the neural substrates of selective attention in children with attention–deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study by Levesque, J., Beauregard, M., & Mensour, B. (2006).
A controlled study of the effects of EEG biofeedback on cognition and behavior of children with attention deficit disorder and learning disabilities by Linden, M., Habib, T., & Radojevic, V. (1996).
Clinical utility of EEG in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by Loo, S., & Barkley, R. (2005).
EEG biofeedback and learning disabilities by Lubar, J. F. (1985).
Neurofeedback for the management of attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorders by Lubar, J. F. (1995).
Neurofeedback for the management of attentiondeficit / hyperactivity disorders by Lubar, J. F. (2003).
Electroencephalographic biofeedback of SMR and beta for treatment of attention deficit disorders in a clinical setting by Lubar, J. O., & Lubar, J. F. (1984).